Patterns of technological innovation in biotech, by Laura M. McNamee and Fred D. Ledley


Theories of innovation posit that effective product development and value creation require business models and strategies matched to the stage of technology evolution. Such theories are predicated on patterns of technology evolution observed in other fields, where periods of exponential advancement are followed by limits and obsolescence as new technologies emerge. In this paper, we describe analogous patterns of technological evolution for three classes of therapeutic biotechnologies—somatic gene therapy, nucleotide therapeutics, and monoclonal antibodies—and discuss the potential relevance of business innovation theories to the biotechnology industry.

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